The cutting edge of JavaFX
Hendrik Ebbers on whats new with JavaFX. How does it rate next to Swing, and can we expect a desktop renaissance?
In his article ” JavaFX 8 – What’s New? ” Hendrik Ebbers
describes the latest features bundled into JavaFX. Hendrik, who
regularly blogs on his website guigarage.com about architectural approaches
for JavaFX, is the author of various open source projects such as
AquaFX and DataFX and is currently preparing a book titled
“Mastering JavaFX Controls 8″, scheduled for release in the summer.
In this interview (also featured in the upcoming issue of JAX Magazine), he assesses
just how production ready JavaFX is in its current state, how
JavaFX compares to Swing, and what the chances are that JavaFX will
lead to a renaissance of Java on the desktop, or even a boom in
JAX: In your article ” JavaFX 8 – What ‘s New”
you say that version 8 of JavaFX is ready for production use. How
did arrive at this conclusion?
Ebbers: I know some companies /
developers who had already successfully implemented projects with
JavaFX. One example is the eteoBoard. From all these people I have gotten
mostly positive feedback about JavaFX. Of course, one should not
forget that there will certainly still be a few minor bugs and open
issues with JavaFX 8. But what framework can claim to be entirely
Does that mean that JavaFX as an UI Kit is
already equal to Swing or has even made it obsolete?
That depends entirely on the approach and the
application scenarios. In many ways, JavaFX is miles ahead of
Swing: Features such as the property API of JavaFX do not exist in
this form in Swing. Also components like the WebView can not be
easily realized for Swing. In addition, JavaFX has a much more
modern API and simply offers many more possibilities on a basic
You simply have to think about the time that
Swing was realized. At this point, nobody cared for animations or
blur effects in a UI. In order to program them for Swing it
requires a lot of know-how and a lot of code. Anyone who has ever
tried to program complex effects for Swing or has read the book
“Filthy Rich Clients” knows what I’m talking about. On the other
hand, many interesting libraries for Swing have emerged over time.
The JGoodies Forms layout was for me, for example, for several
years the standard when it came to the layout of application
In addition, Swing offers ” system look and feel
” to make applications look native on the respective OS. This does
not yet exist for JavaFX to date. Out of the box it includes the
two cross-platform themes ” Modena ” and “Caspian “. Although
Modena looks pretty cool, you always realize that it is a JavaFX
application, and there is a certain friction between the OS and the
Luckily, there are already attempts by the
community to solve these issues. With AquaFX for example, there is
already an open source theme for JavaFX 8, which mimics the native
look and feel of Mac OS. In addition to this project, there are
already a number of first-class open source projects for JavaFX .
Examples I could name are DataFX , Open Dolphin and ControlsFX .
And this is exactly why I think that JavaFX, in the areas where it
hasn’t perhaps yet currently superseded Swing, will follow within a
short time. The community around JavaFX is extremely active, and
Oracle will continue to assist these people.
As we know, JavaFX provides some tools for
migrating from Swing to JavaFX – for example SwingNode . How would
you evaluate the effort to migrate from a Swing application to
The tools mentioned are very well suited to ensure a
smooth migration. During this process individual components of a
Swing application will be gradually replaced by JavaFX.
You can choose which approach to take: either
integrate JavaFX into Swing or vice versa. However, in this
procedure there are a few factors that must be considered: as
already mentioned, there are no native themes for JavaFX and no
themes that correspond to the UI Cross-Platform Look & Feel of
Swin . Therefore, there will always be a kind of fraction in the
UI, as long as one does not develop your own theme.
In addition, it certainly depends on the basic
architecture of the swing application how complicated migration
really is. My knowledge in this area, however, is so far only
theoretical, as I have yet to make my first migration of a larger
application. So far I’ve only created a few prototypes for
articles, lectures and my JavaFX 8- book.
JavaFX as part of Java 8 can be found in
both the JDK and JRE. In your opinion, how will this affect the
user opinion on JavaFX? Will we see a JavaFX boom which makes Java
attractive again, beyond the server
In any case it is clear that Java 8 is really
only the start of JavaFX. Because of the fact that it is now an
integral part of the JDK and JRE, there are now no longer any
barriers to using it. In the near future developers are certainly
more likely to use JavaFX for the creation of desktop clients than
Whether there will be a JavaFX boom, no one can
say today. I think JavaFX has laid the basic foundations. Whether
Java will become more interesting again on the desktop certainly
depends on many other factors. Because of App stores, it has become
interesting again to develop native desktop apps in recent years.
Operating systems like Windows are quite clearly still in their
infancy, and it is exciting to see how these technologies develop
The near future will show if Java applications
can also grab a piece of the pie. In addition to desktop
applications, use of JavaFX for mobile and embedded devices is
certainly very interesting. The images on the Raspberry Pi are now
shipped with Java, and early versions of JavaFX are also available
for Android / iOS.
Because of mobile usage, very interesting
synergies arise when developers just need to create different views
for a desktop and mobile client and can use the remaining part of
an application on all devices.
You write that JavaFX 8 is already fully
adapted to lambdas . What does this mean for users of Java 6 and
This question I would not necessarily refer to
as concerning JavaFX. Because of Java 8, lambdas are now an
integral part of the language, and every developer should try to
get familiar with them as quickly as possible.
Even today lambdas are being used in the first
frameworks, and it will surely not be long before they are found
everywhere. We’ve seen similar developments in the past: no Java
developer would nowadays want to miss out on generics, for
Of course you can also do without using lambda
expressions and only work with anonymous classes when working with
JavaFX. However, since JavaFX already defines many functional
interfaces, very soon boilerplate code will develop. One can
compare the situation with the Stream API of Java 8: theoretically
you can also work with anonymous classes – but who wants
How good is the current tooling for JavaFX,
ie. Scene Builder, NetBeans, Eclipse, IntelliJ, etc?
Very good! With Scene Builder and Scenic View,
you have two excellent tools for developing JavaFX applications
right out of the box. Scene Builder especially is getting better
and today I do not want to miss the tool dialog layout
In the current version of the APIs of Scene
Builders are prepared for the integration into IDEs. Especially
with NetBeans there happened a lot in the last few days. For
Eclipse , there is the “e(fx)clipse project”, which takes care of
the integration of JavaFX into Eclipse.
IntelliJ also has a JavaFX integration already,
for example CSS editor. Even with all theses tools and IDEs, of
course there is still clearly room for improvement, and Scene
Builder isn’t integrated into any one of these IDEs 100 %. However,
one can also work with JavaFX easily without an IDE integration,
since it is plain Java. Thus, each tool and every bit of support is
clearly an advantage over other UI frameworks.
What do you like most about JavaFX
Oh, that’s a difficult question. I think the
coolest API of JavaFX is the Property API. When I’m not working in
a JavaFX Environment, I always miss the bindings.
Another very clear advantage is the CSS
integration. At first, I approached the subject with a certain
scepticism. But once you have styled the first components with CSS,
you can see the added value.
Finally, I would give FXML as an example. In
combination with CSS you can really manage to differentiate the UI,
i.e layout and skin, completely from the business logic implemented
Are there still weaknesses that you would like
to see corrected in future versions ?
I think that some additional components would be
quite interesting. As the chief developer of JavaFX Controls is
also responsible for ControlsFX , I think that some will be taken
care of in JavaFX 9.
There are some classes that are still currently
in private packages and didn’t manage to become public 8 in time
for the release of Java 8. Especially when you develop your own
components, you have to make a few compromises here, if you do not
want to work against private APIs.
Moreover, I think the ability to expand is
lacking in a few places . So, even if you can create your own CSS
properties and also define parsers for new CSS values , you cannot
extend the existing ones. Also at the support for themes should be
On the other side, the creation of System
-Themes should be better supported. Additionally, it is currently
not possible to easily create extensions for themes. That said, I
am still very satisfied with the current version of