Rewriting the script

ScriptCraft: Hacking Minecraft for kids

Elliot Bentley

How do you get kids coding? A JavaScript wrapper to the Minecraft Java API is Walter HigginsÂ’ clever solution.

do you encourage kids to code?

Some might point to the example of Black Eyed Peas popstar promoting the joys of
STEM on mainstream TV
, or Google
offering cash prizes
at summer camps.

Another approach might be through video games, but even a basic
game can take beginners weeks or months to create anything
substantial. In an attempt to break down barriers to entry, IBM
software engineer Walter Higgins created ScriptCraft,
which incorporates JavaScript into popular indie game Minecraft to
allow younger players to easily tap into the game’s flexible

The idea came to Higgins while attending CoderDojo, a volunteer-led scheme for
teaching children programming and electronics at an early age,
which he recently visited with his children.  “A lot of the
kids learning to program JavaScript and HTML also love playing
Minecraft,” said Higgins. “My hope is that when kids say ‘Wouldn’t
it be cool if you could do X in minecraft’, they won’t go googling
for a mod, they’ll write one themselves.”

Coded entirely in Java, Minecraft has also spawned a large and
vibrant modding community, whose efforts have introduced the
ability to travel back in
time to the Jurassic age
, pilotable biplanes and of course
– as well as more boring tasks like
administering external application servers

“What I wanted to do with ScriptCraft was open up Minecraft modding
to a wider audience and make modding more accessible for younger
programmers,” said Higgins. As a challenge, he spent his three-week
Christmas holidays creating a “kid-friendly” JavaScript API for
children to use, with his eldest daughter serving as the project’s
beta tester.

“It wasn’t as straightforward as I thought – Minecraft is
proprietary so you can’t just go about exposing the internals via
JavaScript,” he explains. “I decided to focus on creating an API
for building structures instead – one that was fluent and used some
of Logo’s commands – the goal being to teach kids the basics of
building and moving about in 3 dimensional space and in the process
giving them a taste of programming in JavaScript.”

The result, ScriptCraft, taps into the unofficial Bukkit API
wrapper for Minecraft, allowing programmatic construction of
Minecraft structures from the chat box (though Higgins has also
demonstrated ScriptCraft’s ability to tap into events using
and teleportation

A simple demo: printing the
current date and time.

But why not just use Java, rather than attempt to reinvent the
wheel? “JavaScript is just easier,” says Higgins. “There’s no
compile and build cycle. Accessing and setting properties is more
succinct. Its duck-typing means programmers don’t have to
explicitly cast to different types. Kids at CoderDojo sessions are
already learning JavaScript so it’s a perfect fit for younger

Higgins took advantage of the JVM’s built-in JavaScript engine,
Rhino, which he describes as “Java’s (very) secret weapon”. “It’s
been hiding in plain sight for more than a decade but it’s only
with the resurgence of interest in JavaScript and its recent
reappraisal as a bona-fide “proper” programming language (by the
likes of Douglas Crockford and Steve Yegge) that Rhino’s been
getting attention,” he says. “Rhino makes it possible to add
scriptability to any Java based app.”

Rhino isn’t just useful for Minecraft modding, insists Higgins. “I
do Enterprise Java programming (along with some JavaScript
programming) in my day Job. Rhino makes for excellent ‘glue’ – for
example adding custom build steps to Ant or Maven builds.” Despite
this, he says he hasn’t been following the progress of Nashorn, the
new JavaScript engine for the JVM coming in Java 8. “As long as
it’s JSR223 compliant (which it seems to be) it should be

Spurred on by “a lot of interest” in ScriptCraft at CoderDojo,
Higgins has begun writing a
Young Person’s Guide to Programming in Minecraft
and plans to
run workshops covering ScriptCraft’s Drone API. The source code for
ScriptCraft is also available on
, for those wanting to get their hands dirty.

Ultimately, says Higgins, the trick to getting kids interested in
coding is to make it easier. “Java doesn’t have a REPL (Read Eval
Print Loop) so it’s not conducive to exploratory programming.
Combine exploratory programming with something kids are already
keen on and that lowers a lot of the barriers to coding.”

comments powered by Disqus