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Lambdas in Java 8, Part 1


Get to know lambda expressions ahead of Oracle’s big release with Ted Neward’s helpful tutorial.

Get to know lambda expressions in Java 8.

Few things excite a community of software developers more than a
new release of their chosen programming language or platform. Java
developers are no exception. In fact, we’re probably even more
excited about new releases, partly because there was a time not too
long ago when we thought that Java’s fortunes—like those of Java’s
creator, Sun—were on the wane. A brush with death tends to make one
cherish renewed life all the more. But in this case, our enthusiasm
also stems from the fact that unlike the prior release, Java 8 will
finally get a new “modern” language feature that many of us have
been requesting for years—if not decades.

Of course, the major Java 8 buzz is
around lambdas (also
called closures), and that’s where this two-part
series will focus. But a language feature, on its own, will often
appear anything but useful or interesting unless there’s a certain
amount of support behind it. Several features in Java 7 fit that
description: enhanced numeric literals, for example, really
couldn’t get most people’s eyes to light up.

In this case, however, not only do Java 8 function literals
change a core part of the language, but they come alongside some
additional language features designed to make them easier to use,
as well as some library revamping that makes use of those features
directly. These will make our lives as Java developers easier.

Java Magazine has run articles on lambdas before, but given that
syntax and semantics might have changed since then and not all
readers will have the time or inclination to read those articles, I
will assume that readers have never seen any of this syntax

Note: This article is based on a
prerelease version of Java SE 8 and, as such, it might not be
entirely accurate when the final release ships. Syntax and
semantics are always subject to change until the final release.

For those who desire a deeper, more official explanation of this
material, Brian Goetz’ papers, for example his “State of the Lambda: Libraries Edition” paper and
others available at the Project
Lambda home page
, are priceless references.

Background: Functors

Java has always had a need for functional
 (sometimes called functors), though
we in the community struggled mightily to downplay their usefulness
and need. In Java’s early days, when building GUIs, we needed
blocks of code to respond to user events such as windows opening
and closing, button presses, and scrollbar movement.

In Java 1.0, Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) applications were
expected, like their C++ predecessors, to extend window classes and
override the event method of choice; this was deemed unwieldy and
unworkable. So in Java 1.1, Sun gave us a set of “listener”
interfaces, each with one or more methods corresponding to an event
within the GUI.

As Java grew and matured, we found more places where
treating blocks of code as objects (data, really) was not only
useful but necessary.

But in order to make it easier to write the classes that must
implement these interfaces and their corresponding methods, Sun
gave us inner classes, including the ability to write such a class
within the body of an existing class without having to specify a
name—the ubiquitous anonymous inner class. (By the
way, the listeners were hardly the only example of these that
appeared during Java’s history. As we’ll see later, other, more
“core” interfaces just like them appeared, for
example, Runnable andComparator.)

Inner classes had some strangeness to them, both in terms of
syntax and semantics. For example, an inner class was either
static inner class or an instance
inner class
, depending not on any particular keyword (though
static inner classes could be explicitly stated as such using
the static keyword) but on the lexical context
in which the instance was created. What that meant, in practical
terms, is that Java developers often got questions such as those in
Listing 1 wrong on programming interviews.

Listing 1 

class InstanceOuter {
  public InstanceOuter(int xx) { x = xx; }

  private int x;

  class InstanceInner {
    public void printSomething() {
      System.out.println("The value of x in my outer is " + x);

class StaticOuter {
  private static int x = 24;

  static class StaticInner {
    public void printSomething() {
      System.out.println("The value of x in my outer is " + x);

public class InnerClassExamples {
  public static void main(String... args) {
    InstanceOuter io = new InstanceOuter(12);

    // Is this a compile error?
    InstanceOuter.InstanceInner ii = InstanceInner();

    // What does this print?
    ii.printSomething(); // prints 12

    // What about this?
    StaticOuter.StaticInner si = new StaticOuter.StaticInner();
    si.printSomething(); // prints 24

“Features” such as inner classes often convinced Java
developers that such functionality was best relegated to the corner
cases of the language, suitable for a programming interview and not
much else—except when they needed them. Even then, most of the
time, they were used purely for event-handling reasons.

Above and Beyond

As clunky as the syntax and semantics were, however, the system
worked. As Java grew and matured, we found more places where
treating blocks of code as objects (data, really) was not only
useful but necessary. The revamped security system in Java SE 1.2
found it useful to pass in a block of code to execute under a
different security context. The
revamped Collection classes that came with that
same release found it useful to pass in a block of code in order to
know how to impose a sort order on a sorted collection. Swing found
it useful to pass in a block of code in order to decide which files
to display to the user in a File Open or File Save dialog box. And
so on. It worked—though often through syntax that only a mother
could love.

But when concepts of functional programming began to enter
mainstream programming, even Mom gave up. Though possible (see
this remarkably complete example), functional programming
in Java was, by any account, obtuse and awkward. Java needed to
grow up and join the host of mainstream programming languages that
offer first-class language support for defining, passing, and
storing blocks of code for later execution.

Java 8: Lambdas, Target Typing, and Lexical Scoping

Java 8 introduces several new language features designed to make
it easier to write such blocks of code—the key feature
being lambda expressions, also colloquially referred
to as closures (for reasons we’ll discuss later)
or anonymous methods. Let’s take these one at a

Lambda expressions. Funda-men-tally, a
lambda expression is just a shorter way of writing an
implementation of a method for later execution. Thus, while we used
to define a Runnable as shown in Listing 2,
which uses the anonymous inner class syntax and clearly suffers
from a “vertical problem” (meaning that the code takes too many
lines to express the basic concept), the Java 8 lambda syntax
allows us to write the code as shown in Listing 3.

Listing 2 

public class Lambdas {
  public static void main(String... args) {
    Runnable r = new Runnable() {
      public void run() {
        System.out.println("Howdy, world!");
Listing 3 

public static void main(String... args) {
    Runnable r2 = () -> System.out.println("Howdy, world!");;

Both approaches have the same effect:
Runnable-implementing object
whose run() method is being invoked to print
something to the console. Under the hood, however, the Java 8
version is doing a little more than just generating an anonymous
class that implements
the Runnable interface—some of which has to do
with the invoke dynamic bytecode that was
introduced in Java 7. We won’t get to that level of detail here,
but know that this is more than “just” an anonymous class

 The Runnable interface—like
Comparator<T> interface, and a whole
host of other interfaces already defined within Java—is what Java 8
calls a 
functional interface: it is an
interface that requires exactly one method to be implemented in
order to satisfy the requirements of the interface. This is how the
syntax achieves its brevity, because there is no ambiguity around
which method of the interface the lambda is trying to

The designers of Java 8 have chosen to give us an
@FunctionalInterface, to serve as a
documentation hint that an interface is designed to be used with
lambdas, but the compiler does not require this—it determines
“functional interfaceness” from the structure of the interface, not
from the annotation.

Throughout the rest of this article, we’ll continue to use
Runnable and Comparator<T> interfaces
as working examples, but there is nothing particularly special
about them, except that they adhere to this functional interface
single-method restriction. Any developer can, at any time, define a
new functional interface—such as the following one—that will be the
interface target type for a lambda.

interface Something {
  public String doit(Integer i);

The Something interface is every bit as legal
and legitimate a functional interface
as Runnable or Comparator<T>;
we’ll look at it again after getting some lambda syntax under our

Syntax. A lambda in Java essentially
consists of three parts: a parenthesized set of parameters, an
arrow, and then a body, which can either be a single expression or
a block of Java code. In the case of the example shown in Listing
2, run takes no parameters and
returns void, so there are no parameters and no
return value. A Comparator<T>-based example,
however, highlights this syntax a little more obviously, as shown
in Listing 4. Remember that Comparator takes two
strings and returns an integer whose value is negative (for “less
than”), positive (for “greater than”), and zero (for

Listing 4 

public static void main(String... args) {
    Comparator<String> c = 
      (String lhs, String rhs) -> lhs.compareTo(rhs);
    int result ="Hello", "World");

If the body of the lambda requires more than one
expression, the value returned from the expression can be handed
back via the 
return keyword, just
as with any block of Java code (see Listing 5).

Listing 5 

public static void main(String... args) {
    Comparator<String> c =
      (String lhs, String rhs) ->
          System.out.println("I am comparing" +
                             lhs + " to " + rhs);
          return lhs.compareTo(rhs);
    int result ="Hello", "World");

(Where we put the curly braces in code such as Listing 5 will
likely dominate Java message boards and blogs for years to come.)
There are a few restrictions on what can be done in the body of the
lambda, most of which are pretty intuitive—a lambda body can’t
“break” or “continue” out of the lambda, and if the lambda returns
a value, every code path must return a value or throw an exception,
and so on. These are much the same rules as for a standard Java
method, so they shouldn’t be too surprising.

Type inference. One of the features that
some other languages have been touting is the idea of type
: that the compiler should be smart enough to figure
out what the type parameters should be, rather than forcing the
developer to retype the parameters.

Such is the case with the Comparator example
in Listing 5. If the target type is
Comparator<String>, the objects passed in to
the lambda must be strings (or some subtype);
otherwise, the code wouldn’t compile in the first place. (This
isn’t new, by the way—this is “Inheritance 101.”)

In this case, then, the String declarations
in front of
the lhs and rhs parameters
are entirely redundant and, thanks to Java 8’s enhanced type
inference features, they are entirely optional (see Listing 6).

Listing 6 

public static void main(String... args) {
    Comparator<String> c =
      (lhs, rhs) ->
          System.out.println("I am comparing" +
                             lhs + " to " + rhs);
          return lhs.compareTo(rhs);
    int result ="Hello", "World");

The language specification will have precise rules as to when
explicit lambda formal type declarations are needed, but for the
most part, it’s proving to be the default, rather than the
exception, that the parameter type declarations for a lambda
expression can be left out completely.

One interesting side effect of Java’s lambda syntax is that for
the first time in Java’s history, we find something that cannot be
assigned to a reference of type Object (see
Listing 7)—at least not without some help.

Listing 7 

public static void main4(String... args) {
    Object o = () -> System.out.println("Howdy, world!");
      // will not compile

The compiler will complain
Object is not a functional
interface, though the real problem is that the compiler can’t quite
figure out which functional interface this lambda should
Runnable or something
else? We can help the compiler with, as always, a cast, as shown in
Listing 8.

Listing 8 

 public static void main4(String... args) {
    Object o = (Runnable) () -> System.out.println("Howdy, world!");
      // now we're all good

Recall from earlier that lambda syntax works with any
interface, so a lambda that is inferred to a custom interface will
also be inferred just as easily, as shown in Listing 9. Primitive
types are equally as viable as their wrapper types in a lambda type
signature, by the way.

Listing 9 

 Something s = (Integer i) -> { return i.toString(); };

Again, none of this is really new; Java 8 is just applying
Java’s long-standing principles, patterns, and syntax to a new
feature. Spending a few minutes exploring type inference in code
will make that clearer, if it’s not clear already.

Lexical scoping. One thing that is new,
however, is how the compiler treats names (identifiers) within the
body of a lambda compared to how it treated them in an inner class.
Consider the inner class example shown in Listing 10 for a

Listing 10 

class Hello {
  public Runnable r = new Runnable() {
      public void run() {

  public String toString() {
    return "Hello's custom toString()";

public class InnerClassExamples {
  public static void main(String... args) {
    Hello h = new Hello();;

When run, the code in Listing 10 counterintuitively produces
“Hello$1@f7ce53” on my machine. The reason for this is simple to
understand: both the keyword this and the call
to toString in the implementation of the
anonymous Runnable are bound to the anonymous
inner class implementation, because that is the innermost scope
that satisfies the expression.

If we wanted (as the example seems to imply) to print
out Hello’s version of toString, we
have to explicitly qualify it using the “outer this
syntax from the inner classes portion of the Java spec, as shown in
Listing 11. How’s that for intuitive?

Listing 11 

class Hello {
  public Runnable r = new Runnable() {
      public void run() {

  public String toString() {
    return "Hello's custom toString()";

Frankly, this is one area where inner classes simply created
more confusion than they solved. Granted, as soon as the reason for
the this keyword showing up in this rather
unintuitive syntax was explained, it sort of made sense, but it
made sense in the same way that politicians’ perks make sense.

Lambdas, however, are lexically scoped, meaning
that a lambda recognizes the immediate environment around its
definition as the next outermost scope. So the lambda example in
Listing 12 produces the same results as the
second Hello nested class example in Listing 11,
but with a much more intuitive syntax.

Listing 12 

class Hello {
  public Runnable r = () -> {

  public String toString() {
    return "Hello's custom toString()";

This means, by the way, that this no longer
refers to the lambda itself, which might be important in certain
cases—but those cases are few and far between. What’s more, if such
a case does arise (for example, perhaps the lambda needs to return
a lambda and it wants to return itself), there’s a relatively easy
workaround, which we’ll get to in a second.

Variable capture. Part of the reason that lambdas are
called closures is that a function literal (such
as what we’ve been writing) can “close over” variable references
that are outside the body of the function literal in the enclosing
scope (which, in the case of Java, would typically be the method in
which the lambda is being defined). Inner classes could do this,
too, but of all the subjects that frustrated Java developers the
most about inner classes, the fact that inner classes could
reference only “final” variables from the enclosing scope was near
the top.

Lambdas relax this restriction, but only by a little: as long as
the variable reference is “effectively final,” meaning that it’s
final in all but name, a lambda can reference it (see Listing 13).
Because message is never modified within the
scope of the mainmethod enclosing the lambda being
defined, it is effectively final and, therefore, eligible to be
referenced from within the Runnable lambda
stored in r.

Listing 13 

public static void main(String... args) {
    String message = "Howdy, world!";
    Runnable r = () -> System.out.println(message);;

While on the surface this might sound like it’s not much of
anything, remember that the lambda semantics rules don’t change the
nature of Java as a whole—objects on the other side of a reference
are still accessible and modifiable long after the lambda’s
definition, as shown in Listing 14.

Listing 14 

public static void main(String... args) {
    StringBuilder message = new StringBuilder();
    Runnable r = () -> System.out.println(message);
    message.append("Howdy, ");

Astute developers familiar with the syntax and semantics of
older inner classes will remember that this was also true of
references declared “final” that were referenced within an inner
class—the final modifier applied only to the
reference, not to the object on the other side of the reference.
Whether this is a bug or a feature in the eyes of the Java
community remains to be seen, but it is what it is, and developers
would be wise to understand how lambda variable capture works, lest
a surprise bug appear. (In truth, this behavior isn’t new—it’s just
recasting existing functionality of Java in fewer keystrokes and
with more support from the compiler.)

Method references. Thus far, all the
lambdas we’ve examined have been anonymous literals—essentially,
defining the lambda right at the point of use. This is great for
one-off kinds of behavior, but it doesn’t really help much when
that behavior is needed or wanted in several places. Consider, for
example, the following Person class. (Ignore the
lack of proper encapsulation for the moment.)

class Person {
  public String firstName;
  public String lastName;
  public int age;

When a Person is put into
SortedSet or needs to be sorted in a list of
some form, we want to have different mechanisms by
which Person instances can be sorted—for
example, sometimes by first name and sometimes by last name. This
is whatComparator<T> is for: to allow us to
define an imposed ordering by passing in
the Comparator<T> instance. 

Lambdas are lexically scoped, meaning that a lambda
recognizes the immediate environment around its definition as the
next outermost scope.

Lambdas certainly make it easier to write the sort code, as
shown in Listing 15. But
sorting Person instances by first name is
something that might need to be done many times in the codebase,
and writing that sort of algorithm multiple times is clearly a
violation of the Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY) principle.

Listing 15 

 public static void main(String... args) {
    Person[] people = new Person[] {
      new Person("Ted", "Neward", 41),
      new Person("Charlotte", "Neward", 41),
      new Person("Michael", "Neward", 19),
      new Person("Matthew", "Neward", 13)
    // Sort by first name
      (lhs, rhs) -> lhs.firstName.compareTo(rhs.firstName));
    for (Person p : people)

The Comparator can
certainly be captured as a member
Person itself, as shown in
Listing 16.
Comparator<T> could then
just be referenced as any other static field could be referenced,
as shown in Listing 17. And, truthfully, functional programming
zealots will prefer this style, because it allows for the
functionality to be combined in various ways.

Listing 16 

class Person {
  public String firstName;
  public String lastName;
  public int age;

  public final static Comparator<Person> compareFirstName =
    (lhs, rhs) -> lhs.firstName.compareTo(rhs.firstName);

  public final static Comparator<Person> compareLastName =
    (lhs, rhs) -> lhs.lastName.compareTo(rhs.lastName);

  public Person(String f, String l, int a) {
    firstName = f; lastName = l; age = a;

  public String toString() {
    return "[Person: firstName:" + firstName + " " +
      "lastName:" + lastName + " " +
      "age:" + age + "]";


Listing 17 

 public static void main(String... args) {
    Person[] people = . . .;

    // Sort by first name
    Arrays.sort(people, Person.compareFirstName);
    for (Person p : people)

But it feels strange to the traditional Java developer, as
opposed to simply creating a method that fits the signature
Comparator<T> and then
using that directly—which is exactly what a method reference allows
(see Listing 18). Notice the double-colon method-naming style,
which tells the compiler that the
compareFirstNames, defined
Person, should be used here, rather
than a method literal.

Listing 18 

class Person {
  public String firstName;
  public String lastName;
  public int age;

  public static int compareFirstNames(Person lhs, Person rhs) {
    return lhs.firstName.compareTo(rhs.firstName);

  // ...

  public static void main(String... args) {
    Person[] people = . . .;
    // Sort by first name
    Arrays.sort(people, Person::compareFirstNames);
    for (Person p : people)

Another way to do this, for those who are curious, would be to
use the compareFirstNamest method to create
Comparator<Person> instance, like

Comparator cf =    Person::compareFirstNames; 

And, just to be even more succinct, we could avoid some of the
syntactic overhead entirely by making use of some of the new
library features to write the following, which makes use of a
higher-order function (meaning, roughly, a function that passes
around functions) to essentially avoid all of the previous code in
favor of a one-line in-place usage:

Arrays.sort(people, comparing(

This, in part, is why lambdas, and the functional programming
techniques that come with them, are so powerful.

Virtual extension methods. One of the
drawbacks frequently cited about interfaces, however, is that they
have no default implementation, even when that implementation is
ridiculously obvious. Consider, for example, a
fictitious Relationalinterface, which defines a
series of methods to mimic relational methods (greater than, less
than, greater than or equal to, and so on). As soon as any one of
those methods is defined, it’s easy to see how the others could all
be defined in terms of the first one. In fact, all of them could be
defined in terms of
Comparable<T>’s compare method,
if the definition of the compare method were
known ahead of time. But interfaces cannot have default behavior,
and an abstract class is still a class and occupies any potential
subclass’ one implementation-inheritance slot.

With Java 8, however, as these function literals become more
widespread, it becomes more important to be able to specify default
behavior without losing the “interfaceness” of the interface. Thus,
Java 8 now introduces virtual extension methods(which
used to be known in a previous draft as defender
), essentially allowing an interface to specify a
default behavior for a method, if none is provided in a derived

Consider, for a moment,
the Iterator interface. Currently, it has three
methods (hasNextnext,
and remove), and each must be defined. But an ability
to “skip” the next object in the iteration stream might be helpful.
And because the Iterator’s implementation is easily
defined in terms of the other three, we can provide it, as shown in
Listing 19.

Listing 19  

 interface Iterator<T> {
  boolean hasNext();
  T next();
  void remove();

  void skip(int i) default {
    for (; i > 0 && hasNext(); i--) next();

Some within the Java community will scream, claiming that this
is just a mechanism to weaken the declarative power of interfaces
and create a scheme that allows for multiple inheritance in Java.
To a degree, this is the case, particularly because the rules
around precedence of default implementations (in the event that a
class implements more than one interface with different default
implementations of the same method) will require significant

But as the name implies, virtual extension methods provide a
powerful mechanism for extending existing interfaces, without
relegating the extensions to some kind of second-class status.
Using this mechanism, Oracle can provide additional, powerful
behaviour for existing libraries without requiring developers to
track different kinds of classes. There’s
no SkippingIterator class that developers now
have to downcast to for those collections that support it. In fact,
no code anywhere has to change, and
all Iterator<T>s, no matter when they were
written, will automatically have this skipping behaviour.

It is through virtual extension methods that the vast majority
of the changes that are happening in
the Collection classes are coming. The good news
is that your Collection classes are getting new
behavior, and the even better news is that your code won’t have to
change an iota in the meantime. The bad news is that we have to
defer that discussion to the next article in this series.


Lambdas will bring a lot of change to Java, both in terms of how
Java code will be written and how it will be designed. Some of
these changes, inspired by functional programming languages, will
change the way Java programmers think about writing code—which is
both an opportunity and a hassle.

We’ll talk more about the impact these changes will have on the
Java libraries in the next article in this series, and we’ll spend
a little bit of time talking about how these new APIs, interfaces,
and classes open up some new design approaches that previously
wouldn’t have been practical due to the awkwardness of the inner
classes syntax.

Java 8 is going to be a very interesting release. Strap in, it’s
going to be a rocket-ship ride.

Click here
for Part 2.

Originally published in the July/Aug 2013 issue of Java
Subscribe today.

About the author

 (@tedneward) is an architectural consultant for
Neudesic. He has served on several Expert Groups; authored many
books, including Effective Enterprise
Java (Addison-Wesley Professional, 2004) and Professional
F# 2.0 (Wrox, 2010); written hundreds of articles on Java,
Scala, and other technologies; and spoken at hundreds of

(1) Originally published in the July/Aug 2013
Edition of Java Magazine 

(2) Copyright © [2013] Oracle.




























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