GNU Make 4.0 adds Guile & output-sync, breaks fewer things
Can the ubiquitous compiling tools first release in three years make up for the widely-panned Make 3.82?
releases of Make, that trusty command-line tool for compiling
source code, are so rare that they are notable for their mere
existence, let alone any new features.
Created by Stuart Feldman in 1977, the most commonly-used
version of the program is now GNU Make. With age comes maturity,
and as such, development now takes place at a glacial pace, with
only two releases over the past decade.
The latter, 3.82, was panned for breaking backwards
compatibility in many places without providing much reason to
upgrade. Luckily, v4.0
appears to be more enticing, with some useful new features. The
highlight is integration with GNU Guile, an extension
language created two decades ago but given a makeover in 2011 with
In way of command line options,
is probably the most notable, grouping output by target or
recursive make to prevent confusing mixed message from different
jobs. Other changes include
–trace, which enables tracing of targets; adding the
n flag to
–debug will now disable all debugging settings; and setting
-R options in MAKEFLAGS inside a makefile (to remove
built-in rules and variables) now “works as expected”.
For Windows users, the jobserver capability,
which helps build programs with many subdirectories, and the
.ONESHELL capability, which passes all lines of a recipe to a
single shell, are now both supported.
However, one addition to Make 4.0 that may raise some
!=, a new a shell assignment operator similar to
$(shell …), added for “compatibility with BSD makefiles”.
The release notes recommend to ensure there is whitespace between
variables ending with
! and the = assignment operator (for example,
variable!= value would break).
Another strange new operator is
::=, a newly-defined POSIX standard that’s identical to
:= in function. Less inexplicable is
$(file …), a new function which – as the name suggests –
writes to a file.
For keen early adopters, the new release is now
available to download. For everyone else, it could take a while
to make its way to your OS of choice: the latest versions of Ubuntu
and OS X still ship with a seven-year-old version of Make.