# Easy-as-Pie local caching

A super handy guide for implementing a local cache using the good old ConcurrentHashMap and lambda expressions. Not quite like Mom used to make, but pretty tasty nonetheless.

*This post was originally published over
at jooq.org as part of a special series
focusing on all things Java 8, including how take advantage of
lambda expressions, extension methods, and other great
stuff. You’ll find the
source code on GitHub.*

### Java 8 Goodie: Easy-as-Pie

Local Caching

Now get ready for one of the most awesome revelations in this

series so far. We’ll show you an easy-as-pie way to implement a

local cache using the good old `ConcurrentHashMap`

and

lambda expressions. Because, `Map`

now has a new way

of

atomically calculating a new value in case a key is absent.

Perfect for caches. Let’s delve into code:

public static void main(String[] args) { for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++) System.out.println( "f(" + i + ") = " + fibonacci(i)); } static int fibonacci(int i) { if (i == 0) return i; if (i == 1) return 1; System.out.println("Calculating f(" + i + ")"); return fibonacci(i - 2) + fibonacci(i - 1); }

Yes. That’s the naive way of doing things. Even for small

numbers like`fibonacci(5)`

, the above algorithm will

print out a huge amount of lines, as we’re repeating the same

calculations exponentially:

Calculating f(6) Calculating f(4) Calculating f(2) Calculating f(3) Calculating f(2) Calculating f(5) Calculating f(3) Calculating f(2) Calculating f(4) Calculating f(2) Calculating f(3) Calculating f(2) f(6) = 8

What we want to do is build a cache of previously calculated

fibonacci numbers. The most straightforward technique is

to memoize

all values in a cache. Here’s how we build a cache:

```
static Map<Integer, Integer> cache
= new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
```

Done! As mentioned before, we’re using the newly

added `Map.computeIfAbsent()`

method

to calculate a new value from a `source`

function

only if we don’t already have a value for a given key. Caching! And

since this method is guaranteed to execute atomically, and since

we’re using a `ConcurrentHashMap`

,

this cache is even thread-safe without resorting to manually

applying `synchronized`

anywhere. And it can

be reused for stuff other than calculating fibonacci numbers. But

let’s first apply this cache to

our `fibonacci()`

function.

```
static int fibonacci(int i) {
if (i == 0)
return i;
if (i == 1)
return 1;
return cache.computeIfAbsent(i, (key) ->
fibonacci(i - 2)
+ fibonacci(i - 1));
}
```

That’s it. It can’t get any simpler than this! Want proof? We’ll

log a message on the console every time we actually evaluate a new

value:

static int fibonacci(int i) { if (i == 0) return i; if (i == 1) return 1; return cache.computeIfAbsent(i, (key) -> { System.out.println( "Slow calculation of " + key); return fibonacci(i - 2) + fibonacci(i - 1); }); }

The above program will print

f(0) = 0 f(1) = 1 Slow calculation of 2 f(2) = 1 Slow calculation of 3 f(3) = 2 Slow calculation of 4 f(4) = 3 Slow calculation of 5 f(5) = 5 Slow calculation of 6 f(6) = 8 Slow calculation of 7 f(7) = 13 Slow calculation of 8 f(8) = 21 Slow calculation of 9 f(9) = 34

### How would we have done it in Java 7?

Good question. With lots of code. We’d probably write something

like this using double-checked

locking:

static int fibonacciJava7(int i) { if (i == 0) return i; if (i == 1) return 1; Integer result = cache.get(i); if (result == null) { synchronized (cache) { result = cache.get(i); if (result == null) { System.out.println( "Slow calculation of " + i); result = fibonacci(i - 2) + fibonacci(i - 1); cache.put(i, result); } } } return result; }

Convinced?

Note, that your *actual* solution would

probably make use of Guava

Caches.

### Conclusion

Lambdas are only one part of Java 8. An important part, but

let’s not forget all the new features that were added to the

libraries and that can be leveraged with lambdas now!

This is really exciting and…

We can greatly improve our code bases without resorting to new

libraries. All of the above can be run with the JDK’s libraries

only.